There are basically two options for boat camping. One is kind of like car camping, but using your boat instead of your car to reach your destination then tent camping on shore. The other is actually staying on your boat. In either case you will need to anchor or moor your boat securely.
Some folks like to take their boat to a desirable camping spot, anchor near the shore, and camp on or near the beach. This gives you the best of both boating and camping since you can have a regular campfire and will be sleeping on solid ground. Many times boats are capable of transporting more people than can sleep aboard. In such cases on-shore camping is a necessity. If you are going to camp on shore you need to bring your camping equipment with you on the boat and you will need some way to get it to shore, perhaps a raft or dingy or you may have to wade ashore with it on your shoulders.
Some folks like to sleep on their boats. You might have to do this if there are not viable camping spots where you can anchor your boat or you might want to do it just for the fun of it. If you have any problems with the boat moving while you're trying to sleep this probably isn't a good choice for you. Sometimes folks might still take advantage of a campfire on the beach and sleep on board their boats instead of setting up a tent. All depends on what "floats your boat" as they say.
If you are staying on your boat most of the time you will need to take cooking and sanitation needs into consideration. Boats with built in sanitation or porta-pottys usually take care of basic needs. A boat-safe alcohol stove or even a small butane stove may let you cook on board your boat. Gasoline camp stoves are not recommended.
Sleeping on board may be an attractive option if you just need some overnight rest along the way to a scheduled destination. Just drop anchor in a sheltered cove and turn in for the night.
If you plan to do any on-shore camping you will need to find room to transport all the camping equipment you need and have a way to get it all to shore when you get there. In some rare instances there might be a dock or pier where you can tie up. If not, you will need a raft or dingy or be prepared to wade to get your gear ashore. I have seen folks use an ''anchor buddy'' that lets them drive the boat right up to where they can step off onto the shore then pulls the boat back out into the water until they need it again. A line tied to the shore is used to pull the boat back to the shore when they are ready to re-board.
If you plan to have a campfire you will probably need to bring all your firewood with you, unless you know for sure firewood will be available at your on-shore camp site. Never assume you can just gather firewood. In many cases it there isn't any to be gathered and in many places gathering firewood is illegal.